Copper is an essential element that activates specific enzymes. The enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase, which catalyzes the formation of norepinephrine from dopamine, requires copper. Copper plays a role in the cross-linking of collagen, and copper is used by the adrenal glands.

Copper deficiency has been associated with Wilson’s or Menkes’ disease, and in cases of Wilson’s disease, copper can accumulate to toxic levels in intestinal mucosa, in the liver or in the kidneys; so at the same time, levels appear low in the hair and excretory tissues.

However, outside contamination is common for copper from the following sources:

* Beer
* Chocolate
* Copper cookware
* Copper IUD’s
* Copper pipes
* Dental prosthesis
* Fungicides
* Hair treatments, dyes
* Hemodialysis
* Hot tubs
* Ice makers
* Industrial emissions
* Industrial wastes
* Insecticides
* Milk
* Nuts
* Oral contraceptives
* Oysters
* Swimming pools
* Smoking
* Water, city and well

Low zinc and molybdenum can lead to or worsen copper excess. Medical conditions associated with copper toxicity include:

* Anemia
* Biliary obstruction (inability to excrete excess copper)
* Liver disease
* Renal dysfunction
* Fibromyalgia symptoms
* Muscle and joint pain
* Depression
* Chronic Fatigue symptoms
* Irritability
* Tremors
* Anemia
* Learning disabilities and behavioral disorders
* Stuttering
* Insomnia
* Niacin (B3) deficiency
* Leukemia
* High blood pressure

“Even though copper is considered a nutrient metal, high levels of copper can be very toxic and create health symptoms such as Fibromyalgia.”

– Dr. Janet Starr Hull, PhD., CN

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Dr. Hull's Hair Test is $180 USD which includes a lab report and her detailed interpretation with nutrition recommendations.

About Dr. Janet Starr Hull

Janet Starr Hull, PhD, CN has been offering the hair analysis service since 1995. She is the leading expert in environmental toxicology and holistic health and nutrition. Dr. Hull is the first nutritionist to offer the hair analysis through the internet. Connect with Dr. Hull on Facebook, Twitter, and Google Plus.